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Martial Arts Dictionary



Abaniko - Arnis striking technique using a stick and resembling a fan motion
Age - Rising/Above or up
Age tsuki - Rising punch
Age uke - Rising or upward block
Age-uke gyaku ashi - Up block (reverse foot)
     Shu-to age uke - Rising block with ulnar side of hand
Age zuki - Rising punch
Ago - Chin or jaw
Ago geri - Chin kick
Agura - Informal sitting (legs crossed)
Aka - Red
Aka Ippon - Red point (tournament sparring)
Akiresu ken - Achilles tendon
Aiuchi - Simultaneous Scoring Technique. No point awarded to either contestant. Referee brings fists together in front of the chest.
Aka (shiro) no kachi - Red (white) Wins! The Referee obliquely raises his arm on the side if the winner
Aka (shiro) ippon - Red (white) scores ippon!” The referee obliquely raises his arm on the side of the winner (as in…No Kachi)
Ai - Harmony/Fit together, join. This term is most commonly associated with aikido, where one combines their energy with that of their opponents
Aiki - Harmony meeting”. When one combines an opponent’s energy with their own, for control
Aikido - A martial art developed by Uyeshiba Morihei in the 1930’s. Based on aikijustsu, aikido is considered a non-aggressive art, using the opponent’s energy against them.
Aikijustsu - Technique of harmonious spirit.” A branch of ancient jujutsu from which aikido was developed.
Aite - Opponent” or “partner”. An adversary in a contest.
Ai uchi - Mutual striking down or simultaneous points by both opponents in a match in the sport aspects by Japanese martial arts
Akushu - Handshake
Ame - Rain
Amma, Anma - Massage
An - Hold, investigate, consider
Ana ta no catch - Thank-you
Antei - Balance,” “stability,” or, “equilibrium.”
Anyo - Form.” Dance-like techniques practiced in the Filipino art of arnis
Ap - Front
Ap chagi - Front kick”. Aka apcha busgi (Front snap kick).
Arbir - An Indonesian halberd weapon of pentjak-silat apporimately 5 feet in length that features a shallow rove in the plane of the blade running the length of the shaft.
Arashi - Laid waste, rough, wild
Arigato - Leg or shin
Arit - A sickle with pronounced crescent-blade patterns and a short handle, used in pentjak-silat.
Arnis - "Harness of the hand.” A Filipino martial art, AJA eskrima and kali, centering around stick, blede and empty hand combat.
Ashi or Ashibo - Leg or foot; Foot sweep
Ashi ate - Foot strikes” or “leg strikes.”
Ashi barai - Aka ashsi harai; Leg/Ankle/Foot sweep
Ashi gatami - Leg lock
Ashibo-kake-uke - Leg hooking kick; Ankle hooking block
Ashi kubi - All leg and foot techniques
Ashi-kube-kake-uke - Ankle hooking block
Ashi no ura - Sole of the foot
Ashi sabaki - Foot work” or “foot movement.”
Ashi waza - Sole of the foot; Foot/leg techniques
Ashi ura - Toes
Ashi yubi - Bottom (bottom side)of foot
Ashi zoko - Striking
Atama ate - Head, or more specifically, top of the head.
Atami-uchi - Strike with head
Ate - Hit
Atemi - Striking techniques that are normally used in conjunction with grappling and throwing techniques; Body striking
Ate-waza - Smashing techniques
Atemi waza - Combination blocks
Atenai yoni - Warning without penalty”. This may be imposed for attended minor infractions or for the first instance of a minor inforacion. The referee raises one hand in a fist with the other hand covering it at chest level and shows it to the offender.
Atoshi Baraku - A little more time left. An audible signal will be given by the time keeper 30 seconds before the actual end of the bout.
Au - To encounter an opponent in any Japanese martial arts contest.
Awase - Putting together. Double.
      Awase uke - Joined Hand Block” or two-fisted rising block
      Awase Zuki - U Punch”. Also referred to as MOROTE ZUKI or a “U” shaped, vertical lunging double punch
      Tei-sho irmi awase-zuki - Lunging double palm heel strike
      Shu-to jo-dan awase-uke - Wedge shaped two handed rising block with medial side of hands.
      Tei-sho awase (ge-dan)-uke - Catching block with palm heels pressed together
Ayumi ashi - Natural stepping
Ayumi Dachi - stance found in ITOSU-KAI SHITO-RYU. It is a natural “Walking” stance with the weight over the center.


Badik - A Malayan dagger shaped like a butterfly whose straight blade bears one sharp edge
Bah Roh - At Ease
Bahng Uh Jah Seh - Defensive Stance or right guarding stance
Bajutsu - Japanese art of horsemanship. Aka juobajutsu
Bal - Foot
Balisong - A knife produced in the Philipines. Aka a “Butterfly knife.”
Bandesh - An ancient form of Indian fighting whose principle tenant is to defeat an armed enemy without killing him.
Bando - A Burmese method of armed and unarmed combat composed of karate-like striking a kicking, judo-like throws, stick fighting, swordplay, and knife and spear fighting.
Banjang - A West Japanese style of gulat
Banshay - urmese martial art, influenced by both Chinese and Indian sources, which embraces the use of such weapons as the sword, staff and spear.
Basho - Grand sumo tournaments schedualed 6 times each year in Japan.
Baston - A wooden or rattan stick or cane of varying lengths used in the Filipino martial arts.
Bastonero - Students and practitioners of anis de mano.
Beladau - A Sumatran curved dagger with a convex cutting edge.
Bersilat - A Malaysian martial art embracing both empty hand and weapons techniques.
Bi - Nose or snout
Binot - An ancient Indian form of weaponless fighting the employed wrestling techniques against both armed and unarmed assailants.
Bisento - A spear-like weapon with a blade resembling a scimitar affixed to its end. This weapon is extremely heavy, and was used to cut through armor, and or to cut down a horsed in combat. The bisento was primarily used by the ninja of feudal Japan.
Bo - A wodden staff. A long stick used as a weapon (approximately 6 feet long). It is one of the 5 weapons systematized by the early Okinawan developers of te (hand), and originated with the poles used by farm people to balance heavy loads across the shoulders.
Bogu - Protective equipment of nonmetallic materials used in several styles of Japanese
karate, primarily for competitive sparring.
Bogyo Roku Kyodo - Six Defense Actions.” A basic drill of the Japan Karate-Do Rybu- Kai. Uses the old names of techniques such as AGE TE, HARAI TE (or GEDAN BARAI), SOTO YOKO TE, UCHI YOKO TE, SHUTO TE, SUKUI TE.
Bojutsu - An armed defense system centering around the use of the bo. It was developed from Japanese lance and spear techniques.
Bokken - A wooden sword used by the Japanese feudal warrior as a practice weapon. The bokken went on to become an effective battlefield weapon.
Bong - See “Bo.”
Bu - Military” or “warrior.” A class or section. A concept denoting the entire military dimension of feudal Japan
Buddhism - A religious doctrine, one branch of which – the Chan school, or Zen – is closely connected to the practice of the martial arts.
Bub - Law (principle)
Budo - Martial arts way”. The Japanese character for “BU” (martial) is derived from characters meaning “stop” and )a weapon like a ) “halberd.” In conjunction, then “BU” may have the connotation “to stop the halberd”. In Karate, there is an assumption that the best way to prevent violent conflict is to emphasize the cultivation of individul character. The way (DO) of karate is thus equivalent to they way of BU, taken in this sense of preventing or avoiding violence so far as possible; “Military way” or “way of fighting.” A generic term emcompassing all of the Japanese martial arts, which are largely 20th century offspring stemming from the concepts that can first be positively identified about the mid-18th century.
Budoka - Any follower of the budo doctrine belonging to such arts as aikido, judo, kendo and karate.
Bugei - A generic term encompassing older Japanese martial arts which applies specifically to those principles used by the samurai, or bushi, whose occupation was called this.
Bujin - A name for the martial arts expert. Translated as “military person” or “warrior person”.
Bujutsu - Martial arts techniques; A collective term for all the Japanese arts practiced by the samurai.
Buke - Samurai. Translated as “person or military class.”
Bunkai - A detailed study of the martial arts techniques and applications in KATA; or an Application of a technique; “Analysis.”
Bushi - Warrior class of Japan; “Military person,” or “samurai.” A term for the Japanese warrior which was changed to samurai in the 15th century.
Bushido - Way of the warrior; A strict code of ethical behavior followed by the samurai.
Bushido was formulated during the Tokugawa Era (1603-1868) of Japan. The premise of the code was to advise a samurai how to conduct himself in a battle and how to find a meaningful place in a peacetime society.


Capoeira - A Brazilian form of combat adapted by African slaves to fight oppression. It is dance-like, and many believe it was developed this way to be disguised as a dance to the slave owners, rather than self-defense.
Cha chuan - A northern Chinese form of kung fu developed from 14thto 17th century by Muslims of Sinkiang, Chinghai, and Kansu, in the west and south of China. In this system, practitioners fight from long range using high, long leaps to clse the gap.
Cha Ryuht – Attention
Chashi - A Chinese exercise tool once made of iron and more recently of cement. These block-like objects, with handles, are used in one and two-hand exercises to strengthen the wrists and ams.
Chi - Spirit”, “air,” “breath,” or “spirit energy”. A biophysical energy generated through breathing techniques studied in kung fu. Ideally, chi can infused a person with tremendous vitality and make him or her extremely powerful in action, much moreso than power developed through the muscular system alone.
Chiang - Spear.” One of the major Chnese weapons practiced in wushu.
Chiburi - Removing blood from the sword.” In iaido (way of the sword), a sharp downward stroke of the sword done is such a way as to shake off the blood
accumulated from previous cutting actions.
- A double-edged sword used in many styles of kung fu. Aka the “gim” or “jyan.”
Chigai - Difference or dispute
Chikara - Strength or power
Chi kung - A breathing exercise that cultivates chi and transmits it to all the bodily organs. Know in ancient China as “The method to repel illness and prolong life.”
Chikuto - See Shinai
Chimpan - The referee of a match. AKA Shimban, sinban, or shimpan.
Ching lo - Accupuncture’s 12 meridians of the obdy on which the key points of treatments lie and which are associated with the vital organs.
Ching shien - Spirit of vivacity in the Chinese martial arts
Chi sao - Sticking hands.” An exercise used in Wing Chun kung fu that develops sensitivity to the hands and arms.
Cho - To listen, headstrong, naughty, or careful inquiry
Cho-cho-uke - Butterfly block
Choku tsuki (zuki) - Straight punch
Chocku zuki - A straight punch
Chong bong - See “bo”
Cho Geup - Elementary level
Cho wa - In the Japanese martial arts, the harmonious mental and physical reaction while at practice.
Choy li fut - One of the most populart southern Chinese kung fu systems. Choy li fut is essentially a long-range form of Chinese boxing that relies heavily on strong horse stances and graceful yet dynamic long-handed techniques.
Chu - Middle
Chuan - A general term used loosely to refer to a system of boxing, although it does not apply to any specific style.
Chuan fa - - major Chinese precursor of karate. Most form of 20th century chuan fa are said to be descendents of Ch’ueh Yuan’s “170 hand and foot positions.”
Chuden - Middle transmision
Chung dan - Middle or center. Region of the body from the neck to the waist, used to explain target areas.
Chudan chui - See Choong dan
Chung sim - Center of gravity
Chu-dan - Mid-section of the body. During the practice of KIHON IPPON KUMITE (one step basic sparring), the attacker will normally announce where he/she will attack JODAN, CHUDAN, or GEDAN (Upper level, Mid-level, or lower level). Chest area.
      Chu-dan-choku-zuki - Straight punch to body
      Chu-dan-mae-geri - Chin kick
      Chudan Shotei uke - Mid level palm heel block
      Chu-dan-shuto-uke - Knife hand block against body attack
      Chu-dan-uchi-uke - Forearm block from inside outward
      Chu-dan-ude-uke - Forearm block against body attack
      Chu-dan-uke - Middle blocks in general
      Chu-dan-zuki - A punch to the mid-section of the opponent’s body
Chui - Warning.” Admonition by a referee in a match, short of actual penalty.
Chuken - The middle of the five players on a kendo team.
Chung do kwan - Blue wave school.” A Korean form of empty hand fighting founded by Won Kook Lee in 1945.
Chung ga - Augment.”
Chunin - Middle person.” The second of three ninja military ranks designating the leader of a group of ninja on assignment. Those led by chunin were the genin; those who obtained the assignment were the jonin.
Chwa - Left; Left side
Corno Breton - Aka Cornish wrestling. This form of grappling is very similar to Japanese judo. The most significant difference is that a wrestler is not permitted to go to the ground with an opponenet, but must make the throw while standing.


Daab - A Thai sword used in Krabi Krabong.
Dachi - A stance
Dai kissaki - point on a Japanese sword, a style more commonly found on swords from the 1700’s.
Daisan - The completed drawing phase of kyudo.
Daisho - Big and small.” Two swords, one long and the other short, worn by the smaurai class in feudal Japan.
Daito - A long sword, whose cutting edge, was over 24 inches in length, as contrasted with such shorter swords as the wakizashi (18 inches).
Daito - Long sword, or katana
Daki - To embrace or hug
Dan - A term used in the Japanese martial arts for anyone who has achieved the rank of at least first degree black belt. ”Level”, “Rabk”, or “Degree”. Black belt rank.
Dan - Cedar, or sandlewood tree
Dan or Nan - Man, or baron
Dan - Rotten meat odor
Danjun - Part of the body just below the navel which is believed to be the source of ki.
Danzan-Ryu - Sandlewood mountain system (Hawaiian)
Dan-zuki - Consecutive punching Dayang - The female black belt ranks in the Filipino art arnis de mano.
De - Advanced, or forward
Deai-osae-uke - Pressing block while stepping in
De ashi barai - Forward foot sweep
Den - Electric
Den - Field
Den - Transmission, or addition
Denzook - No count
Deru pon - A term used to denote the winning of a judo contest in the opening seconds before a contestant has had time to adjust im or herself, or even grasped the opponent’s jacket.
Deishi - Disciple”, or “ Student”
Di - Belt
Djuroes - Dancelike fighting movements used in the Indonesian martial arts, similar to karate katas.
Do - The way; path. The Japanese character for “DO” is the same as the Chinese character for Tao (as in “Taoism”). In Karate, the connotation is that of a way of attaining enlightenment or a way of improving one’s character through traditional training. Literally means, “Place of the way”. Also, place of enlightement. A place to practice karate. Traditional etiquette prescribes bowing in the direction of the designated fornt of the dojo (SHOMEN) whenever entering or leaving the dojo. When this term is used as a suffix to a particular style of the Japanese martial arts, it is indicitive of more than just a means of combat. Do indicates a discipline and philosophy with moral and spiritual sonnotations, with the ultimate aim being enlightenment.
Do - Motion, or confusion
Do - Trunk of the body, torso
Dobak - Korean term for a martial arts unifrom
Doh Bohk - Martial Arts Uniform
Dojo - Martial arts training hall/gym, literally, “Place of the Way”
Duko - Single or alone
Dokko - Mastoids
Domo Arigato - Thank-you
Domo Arigato Gozaimashita - Thank you very much”. At the end of each class, it is proper to bow and thank the instructor and those whom you’ve trained.


Ebi - Lobster or shrimp
Ekku - A wooden oar used by the Okinawans which was improvised as a weapon.
Embusen - Floor pattern of a given kata
Empi - The black belt level KATA, translated as “The Flight of a Sparrow”
Empi (-uchi) (=Hiji-ate) - Elbow”. Sometimes referred to a HIJI
      Empi-uchi - Elbow strike
      Mae-empi - Forward elbow strike horizontally
      Ushiro-empi - Backward elbow strike
      Tate-empi - Vertical elbow strike
      Yoko-empi - Sideward elbow strike
Encho-sen - Extension. After a draw, the match goes into overtime. Referee reopens match with command “Shobu Hajime”.
Enpi - Elbow attacks
En sho - Round heel
Eri - Lapel
Eue Bohk - Clothes


Fu - Wind, manner
Fudo-dachi - Rooted stance
Fuji - Wysteria
Fujin - Women
Fujubun - Not enough power in tournaments
Fuka - Restore or revert
Fukushin - Judge
Fukushin Shugo - A judges conference in tournaments
Fukuto - Outside, lower thigh
Fumikiri - Cutting kick
Fumikomi - Stamping or stomp kick usually to the knee, shin, or instep of an opponent
Fumikomi-age-uke - Up block stepping in
Fumikomi-shuto-uke - Knife hand block stepping in
Fumikomi-ude-uke - Forearm block while stepping in
Furi - Modified from furu; swing
Furi-zuki - Circular/Swinging punch
Furi-wake(-barai) - Downward sweeping block to both sides with ulnar side of fists and wrists
Shu-to furi-wake-barai - Downward sweeping block to both sides with ulnar side of hands and wrist
Furo - Bath
Fuse - Modified from fuseru; palm side down
      Fuse hai-to (-uchi) - Inward hai-to strike with palm facing down
      Fuse nuki-te - Nuke-te with palm side facing down
      Fuse shu-to (-uchi) - Outward shu-to strike with palm facing down
Fushi - Knuckle, joint


Geashi - Counter or return
Gai (=soto - Outward
Gai wan - Outer arm
(Gai-wan) otoshi-uchi (-uke) - Downward block with ulnar side of wrist
Gai-wan soto-uke - Outward block with ulnar side of wrist
Gan or Gansei - Eye
Gan - Include or understand
Gane - Bell
Gankaku Dachi - Crane stance – also Tsuru ashi dachi or Sagi ashi dachi or One-legged stance
Ganmen - Head or Face
Ganmen uchi - Facial strike
Gasshuku - Special training camp
Gatame - A hold, arm bar
Ge - Below
Geashi - Reversal
Ge-dan - Low section/area of the body. During the practice of Kihon Ippon Kumite (one-step basic sparring), the attacker will normally announce where he/she will attack Jodan, Chudan, or Gedan (upper level, Mide-level, or lower level).
      Ge-dan-barai - Downward sweeping block with medial side of arm
      Ge-dan-choku-zuki - Straight punch to low area
      Ge-dan-kekomi - Thrust kick to low level target
      Ge-dan uchi-uke - Inward sweeping block with ulnar side of wrist
      Ge-dan jyu-ji-uke - Downward cross wrist block with back of fist
      Ge-dan kake-uke - Low level hooking block
      Ge-dan no kamae - Lower level combat posture
      Ge-dan ude-uke - Low forearm block
      Ge-dan-uke - Downward low level block
      Ge-dan ude-uke - Low level block
      Gedan zuki - A punch to the lower section of the opponent’s body
      Moro-te (ge-dan)-barai…Double downward block to one side with palm side of fists facing each other, (matador fist position)
      Moro-te hai-to (ge-dan)-barai - Double open-handed downward block with palms facing each other
      Moro-te shu-to (ge-dan)-barai - Double open-handed downward block to one side with palm parallel and facing each other
      Shu-to ge-dan-barai - Downward sweeping block with ulnar side of open hand
Gen - Fist or original
Gen no sen - Allow one to attack, set up to counter-attack
Getsu - Moon
Geri - Kick
Geu Mahn – Stop
Geut – Finish
Gi (Do gi, Keiko gi, or Karate gi)
- Jacket; Training costume; Karate uniform; training costume. In JKR and in most other traditional Japanese and Okinawan Karate Dojo, the Gi, must be white and cotton (Synthetics with Cotton allowed). The only markings allowed are the JKR patch on the left breast area and the person’s name at the front bottom corner of the jacket.
Gijutsu - Technique or art
Go - Five
Go - Safeguard or protect
Goh Geup - Advanced intermediate level
Gohon kumite - 5-step basic sparring. The attacker steps in five consecutive times with a striking technique with each step. The defender steps back 5 times, blocking each technique. After the 5th block, the defender executes a counter-strike.
Goku - Prison
Gokurosama - Thank you for doing what is expected of you (with respect)
Gokurosan - Thank you for doing what was expected of you.
Go no sen - The tactic where one allows the opponent to attack first so to open up targets for counterattack
Goshin - Self defense
Gyaku - Reverse, reversal, opposite
      Gyaku-ashi - Reverse foot
      Gyaku-geri - Reversed kick
      Gyaku-hammi - Degree reverse body position
      Gyaku mawashi geri - Reverse roundhouse kick
      Gyaku tsuki - Reverse punch
      Gyaku-zuki (=jyun-zuki) - Reverse punch
Gyo - Going or journey


Ha - Tooth/Wing
Hachi - Eight
Hachiji dachi - A natural stance where feet are positioned about one shoulder width part, with feet pointed slightly outward; Open leg stance
Hada - Skin
Hadaka - Naked or bare
Hae - Lungs
Hagai - Wing position
Haguki - Gums
Hai - Yes/Back
      Haibu - Back (back rib area)
      Haimen - Back or rear side
      Haishu - Back of the hand or Back of the hand block
      Hai-shu jyu-ji-uke - Open backhand block with crossed wrists
      Hai-shu sassae-uke - Augmented open backhand block
      Hai-shu-uchi - Open backhand strike
      Hai-shu-uke - A block using the back of the hand
      Haisoku - Instep
      Hai-wan - Back of the arm
      Hai-wan-nagashi-uke - Back-arm
      Hai-wan-uke - Block with back of arm/sweeping block
      Jo-dan hai-shu-uke - Open backhand block
Hai-to…Index finger, thumb side (radial surface) or a ridge hand, inner blade of the hand aka a ridge hand
      Hai-to jiraki-uke (=moro-te hai-to soto-uke Double outward block with hai-to
      Hai-to (-uchi) - Strike with hai-to; ridge hand strike
      Fuse hai-ro (-uchi)
- Inward hai-to with palm side down
      Hai-to ge-dan-barai - Downward sweeping block with hai-to
      Moro-te hai-to (ge-dan)-barai - Double open-handed downward block with palms facing outward and parallel to each other
      Hai-to-uke - Block with hai-to; a ridge hand strike
Hajime (hah-ji-may) - Begin. A command given to start a drill, kata, or kumite
Han - Half
Hane - Spring up
Hangetsu - A black belt level kata.
Han-getsu (-dachi) - Wide hour-glass stance (half-moon stance)
Hana - Nose
Hanmi - Position with body (hips) rotated 45 degrees; Half-front facing
Hanmi no kamae - Half-front facing posture
Han-zenkutsu-dachi - Half-forward stance
Hara - Abdomen
Harai - Sweep
Hasami - Scissors, put between
      Hasami-uchi - Scissors strike, horizontal strike with fists from both sides
      Hasami-uke - Catching block between both wrists by bringing the forearms together in front of body
      Hasami-zuki - scissors punch) punch inward with fists from both sides.
      Tei-sho Hasami-uchi - Strike inward with palm heels from both sides
      Ushiro Hasami-uchi - Backward scissors strike, strike backward with knuckles (proximal interphalangeal) from both sides
Hanshi - Master – Usually the highest ranking in the organization. An honorary title given to the highest black belt of an organization, signifying their understanding of their art. In Japan, Karate-Do Ryboku-Kai, the Hanshi is the Grandmaster of Ryboku-Kai, Yasuhiro Konishi II; The head person of an organization.
Hansoku - Foul, a penalty in a tournament. This is imposed following a very serious infraction. It results in the opponent’s score being raised to Sanbon. Hansoku is also invoked when the number of Hansiku-chui and Keikoku imposed raised the opponent’s score to Sanbon. The referee points with his index finger to the face of the offender at a 45-degree angle and announces a victory for the opponent.
Hansoku chui…”warning with an ippon penalty. This is a penalty in which ippon is added to the opponent’s score. Hansoku-chui is usually imposed for infractions for which a keikoku has previously been given in that bout. The referre points with his index finger to the abomen of the offender parallel to the florr.
Hantei…Decision or judgment in a tournament. Referee calls for judgment by blowing his whistle and the Judges render their decision by flag signal.
Hara - Abdomen
Harai - Sweep
Harai te - Sweeping technique with the arm
Harai waza - Sweeping techniques
Hasami zuki - Scissor punch
Hashi - Chopsticks
Haya - Quick, early, fast
Hazushi - Release, escape
Hebi - Large serpent
Hei-ko-dachi…A natural stance with fee parallel and shoulder width apart. Some katas begin from this position; Parallel stance
Heiko zuki - A parallel punch. (A double, simultaneous punch).
Hei-soku(-dachi) An informal attention stance with with feet touching and pointed straight forward
Heiwan-uchi - Forearm strike
Henka waza… - used after Oyo Waza is applied. It is varied and dependent on the given condition
Hi - Secret; spleen; fly
Hibara - Side of the body
Hidari - Left
Hidari-teji-dachi - Left T-stance
Hifu - Skin
Hiji - Elbow aka Empi
Hiji-ate - Elbow smash
Hiji atemi - Elbow strikes
Hiji-suri-uke - Elbow sliding block
Hiji-uke - Elbow block
Hiji-uchi - Elbow strike
Hiki - Pull
Hiki-te...Drawing hand, pulling hand. The retracting (pulling and twisting) arm during a technique. It gives the balance of power to the forward moving technique. It can also be used as a pulling technique after a grab, or a strike backward with the elbow.
Hiki-uke - Pulling/grasping block
Hikiwaki or Hikiwake - Draw. Referee crosses arms over chest, then uncrosses and holds arms out from the body with the palms showing upwards.
Hira - Flat, palm
      Hira hai-to (-uchi) - hai-to with palm side up
      Hira kake-te - Block with lateral side or wrist, ending with the palm facing upward
      Hira nuki-te - 3 finger thrust with palm side upward
      Hira shu-to (-uchi) - Inward medial side of hand strike with palm side upward
      Hira-te nagashi-uke - Guiding block with palm
      Ge-dan hira-te sassae-uke - Augmented palm block to lower section
      Jo-dan hira-te sassae-uke - Augmented palm block to upper level
Hiraken - Fore-knuckle fist
Hiraken-zuki - Fore-knuckle-fist straight punch
Hiraki - Modified from hiraku; -
      Hiraki-uke (=moro-te soto-uke) - Opening block, double outward block with lateral side of wrists
      Shu-to hiraki-uke - Opening block with shu-to
Hitai - Forehead
Hitosashi Ippon Ken - Forefinger knuckle
Hiza - Knee
Hiza-gashira - Knee cap
Hiza-geri - Knee kick
Hiza Gashira - Knee joint
Hiza-uchi - Knee strike
Hiza uke - A blocking action using the knee
Hizo - Spleen
Ho - Cheek; Direction; method
Hoka - Outside
Hombu dojo - A term used to refer to the central dojo of an organization
Hon - Basic
Honbu - Headquarters
Hone - Bone
Horan no kamae - Egg in the nest ready position”. A “ready” position used in some Kata where the fist is covered by the other hand.
Hyaku - Hundred


Ibuki - Controlled breathing
Ibukuro - Stomach
Ichi - One
Ichimonji - Straight line
Imon - The point where the kimono crosses in front of the chest
In - Institute; negative, female
Ina - Rice plant
Inazuma - Liver; Lighting flash
Ippon - One, one point; Point (as in a sparring match).
      Ippon-ken - Fist with protruding index knuckle aka a One-knuckle fist
      Ippon Kumite - One-step/point sparring
      Ippon-nuki-te - A stabbing thrusting action using the extended index finger
      Ippon shobu - One punch/point match used in tournaments
Iri - Enter
Irimi - Lunging
      Irimi awase-zuki (=Yama-zuki) - Lunging vertical double strike
      Irimi (bo) osae-uke - Catching a pole with both hands using web between thumb and index finger and palmar crease
      Tei-sho irimi awase-zuki - Lunging double palm heel strike
Isami - Braced up, courageous
Ishi - Stone
Iye - No
Iyeh - No


Jah Seh - Stances
Ji - Blood; earth; shape, character
Jigoku - Hell
Jikan - Time – used in tournaments
Jin - Muscles, tendons; Kidney
Jin-chu - Philtrum (middle of upper lip)
Jinzo - Kidney
Jiu Kumite - Freestyle sparring
Jiyu Ippon Kumite - One-step free stance sparring. The participants can attack with any technique whenever ready.
Jiyu Kumite - Free-style sparring”
Jo - A wooden staff about 4’-5’ in length. The Jo originated as a walking stick.
      Jo-sokutei - Raised sole or Double entry
Jo-dan - Upper section (face or head area). During the practice of Kihon Ippon Kumite, the attacker will normally announce where he/she will attack Jodan, Chudan, or Gedan; Head target area
      Jo-dan-age-uke - Upper block against head attack
      (Jo-dan) awase-uke - Two-fisted rising block
      Jo-dan kekomi - Thrust kick to the face
      Jo-dan-mae-geri - Front kick to face
      Jo-dan more-te-uke - Augmented upper level outward block
      Jo-dan no kamae - Upper level combat posture
      Jo-dan uke - Upper block in general
Jogai - Out of bounds in tournaments or exit from fighting area. The referee points with his index finger ata 45 degree angle to the area boundary on the side of the offender.
Jogai keikoku - Second exit from gihting area. Waza-ari penalty is given to the opponent
Jogai hansoku chui - 4th and final exit from the fighting area. 4th exit from the fighting area causes victory to the opponent. Or 3rd from fighting area. Referee uses 2 hand signals with announcement. AKA: shiro, or jogai hansoku chui. He first points with his index finger to the match boundary on the side of the offender, then to the offender’s abdomen. An ippon is awarded to the opponent.
Joon Bee - Ready
Joong Geup - Intermediate level
Ju - Gun; Ten
Ju Dachi - Free fighting stance
Judo - Gentle way
Juhn Gool Jah Seh - Long Stance or bent leg front leg stance
Juhng Jah - Kneel
Juji - Cross shape
Juji uke - An X-block
Ju Jitsu (joo-jhit-soo) - A form of fighting used by Samurai
Jun zuki - The Wado Ryu term for Oi-zuki
Jyu-ji-uke - Crossed-wrists block with back of hand
      Hai-shu jyu-ji-uke - Crossed-wrists block with block with back of hand


Katana (kah-tah-nah) - Long sword
Ki Bohn
- Foundational level
Ki Cho
- Foundation level
Ki Cho Jah Ki
- "Ki" Breathing excercises
Ki Hahp
- Martial arts yell
Ki Mah Jah Seh
- Horse Riding Stance
(koh-boo-doh) - Weapons
Kong Kyuk Jah Seh - Offensive Stance or left guarding stance
Kyung Neh - Bow




Maek - Pressure point


Nada - Blade, sword
Nagashi - Modified form nagasu; to let flow, to let fun, to set adrift
      Nagashi-uke - Sweeping block
      Nagshi age-uke - Guiding rising block
      Hira(-te) nagashi-uke - Guiding block with palm
      Soto nagashi-uke - Outward guiding block with radial side of wrist
Nage - Throw
Nagewaza - Throwing techniques
Nagi - Mow down the enemy
Naifanchi, Naihanchi Dachni - Straddle leg stance
Naihanshi-dachi - Naihanchin-dachi with knees turned in and down
Nai wan - Inner arm
Nak Bub - Falling principle
Naka-daka-ippon-ken - Protruding middle one-knuckle fist (noogie)
Nakadaka-ken - Middle finger knuckle fist
Nami - Normal
Nami-ashi - Sweep avoidance
Nami-gaeshi - Block with sole of foot against low kick to groin
Nawa - Rope, cord
Neko - Cat
Neko-ashi(-dachi) - Cat stance
Nen - Idea, sense
Ni - Two
Nidan - Second level in black belt
Ni-dan-geri - Jumping double (front) kick
Ni-dan tobi geri - Double jump kick
Nige-ashi - Escape by shifting stance
Nihon nuke-te - Two-finger thrust/spearhand(index and middle fingers)
Nin - Person
Nirami - Glare, scowl
Nito Kin - Biceps
No - Brain; Possessive indicator
Nodo - Throat
Nori - Ride
Nuke-te iru - Out of target in tournaments
Nuki - Draw out; Modified from nuku; to thrust
      Nuki-te - Spear hand or a Three-finger thrust
      Hira nuki-te - Nuki-te with palm facing outward
      Ippon nuki-te - Index finger thrust
      Nihon nuki-te - two-finger thrust (index and middle fingers)
      Fuse nuki-te - Three finger thrust with palm facing down
Nunchaku - An Okinawan weapon consisting of two sticks connected by rope or chain
Nusumi-ashi - Stealing foot move


Obi (oh-bee) - Belt






Rei - Bow
Reigi or reishiki or Renshi - Etiquette
Reinoji Dachi - Stance with feet in L-shape
Rensei - Practice tournament – critique
Renshi - Expert instructor, one who has mastered himself
Renzoku-geri - Combination kick
Renzoku waza - Combination techniques
Ren-zuki - Two consecutive punches
Ri - Back
      Ri-ken(-uchi) (=ura-ken) - Back fist
Rokkotsu - Rib
Roku - Six
Ryu - School of martial arts
Ryu-sui-zuki - Flowing punch


Samurai (sahm-oo-rei) - Warrior: One who serves to the fullest - without question
(sen-say) - Instructor or teacher
She Uh
- Rest
(shee-hahn) - Master, Instructor to all Black Belts in a system
Shuto (shoo-toh) - Knife edge or hand strike
Soo - Technique (hand)
Soo Ryuhn - Practice
Soom She Ki - Breathing


Tatami (tah-tah-mee) - Workout mat/floor


Uchi - Pound; Striking inward, inside
      Uchi-deshi - A live-in student/Apprentice
      Uchi-hachiji-dachi - Inverted open-leg stance
      Uchi-mawashi-geri - Inside roundhouse kick
      Uchi-ude-uke - Inside block with radial side of arm; outward block with radial side of arm
      Uchi-uke - Inward block with ulnar side of wrist; block from inside, outward
      Uchi-waza - Striking techniques
Ude - Forearm or Arm (=wan)
Ude uki - Forearm block
Uechi - An Okinawan style of karate founded by Kanbum Uechi
Uke - Blocking
Ukemi - Breakfalling
Ukemi waza - Breakfall techniques
Ukete iru - Blocked in tournaments
Uki - Float
Um Yahng - Equal but opposite forces
Undong - Excersise
Ura (-ri) - Back ,behind, reverse
      Uraken - Backfist
      Ura-ken (uchi) - Backfist strike (=ri-ken-uchi)
      Urs-tsuki - Close punch
      Ura-zuki - Punch with palm side up; Close range uppercut
Ushiro - Back, backward; Rear
      Ushiro-ashi-geri - Rear leg kick
      Ushiro-empi (uchi) - Backward elbow strike
      Ushiro-geri - Back kick
      Ushiro hasami-uchi
- Backward scissors strike; strike backward with knuckles (proximal interphalangeal) from both sides
      Ushiro-hiji-ate - Back elbow smash
Ura - Reverse, hiding, or rear
Uraken - Reverse fist
Ura zuki - Reverse punch
Ushiro - Back, rear, or behind
Utsu - To strike or to hit
Utsuri - Switch
Uye - Up or upward




Wa - Harmony, accord, and coordination
Wado - Way of peace and harmony
Wado ryi - A Japanese style meaning “Way of Peace”
Waki - Armpit; Side or flank
Wakizashi - Short sword
Wan (=ude) - Arm
Wanto - Arm sword
Wari - Split
Waribashi - Splittable chopsticks
Wase - Fit together, join
Washi-de - Strike with fingers and thumbs like a beak (eagle’s talon strike)
Watari - Transit
Waza - Technique
Wing chun - A form of Chinese kung fu meaning “Beautiful springtime
Wazari - Half point in a match
Wushu - War arts”


Xi - Knee, west
Xia - To scare to frighten
Xia Chao Dai - Xia dynasty, ruled China from the twenty-first to sixteenth century B.C.
Xian - Immortal, deity; to betray
Xiang - Elephant incense
Xiang pi - Elephant skin as used in Chinese herbal medicine
Xian jing - Trap
Xian ren zhi xing - A movement in the Taiji sword form
Xiao guai xing - A movement in the Taiji sword form


Yame (yah-may) - Stop
Yea Ee - Etiquette
Yea Eue - Etiquette


Zan - Mountain
Zan-shin - Awareness or Mental follow through; Literally, remaining mind/heart
Za-rei - Traditional Japanese bow from kneeling position
Zawa - Swamp
Zazen - Sitting meditation
Zen - Forward, front; or a Buddhist sect or Religious meditation
Zen-kutsu (-dachi) - Forward stance (stance with front leg bent)
Zen-shin - Whole body/forward
Zen-wan - Forearm
Zo - Elephant, Viscera
Zori - Japanese slippers
Zu - Head
Zuno - Head or brains




Last Update: 5/02/03